Implications of the Game of Life

In 1970 a British mathematician, John Conway, devised a simple set of rules which simulates cellular life, often referred to as Conway’s Game of Life. In the Game of Life, the universe is a two-dimensional grid, with each cell obeying the following four simple rules, and coloured black if “alive” and white if “dead”.

Playing the Game

The rules are as follows

  1. Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbours dies, as if by underpopulation.
  2. Any live cell with two or three live neighbours lives on to the next generation.
  3. Any live cell with more than three live neighbours dies, as if by overpopulation.
  4. Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.
Animation of Conway’s Game of Life

What is so remarkable about this is the demonstration that complexity can emerge from simple rules. Here are some isolated examples of simulated life-forms which can emerge from within the game:

Beyond the Game

What is very interesting is that if you change some of the properties of the rules, for example deciding that death by overpopulation can occur with only three neighbours rather than four, suddenly the nature of the universe changes. With most combinations of rules that you can try, life does not exist, and with a few one notices that quite different types of “life” starts to emerge.

Then if one experiments with different starting conditions, similar consequences are noticed. For example, if you start with the universe completely blank, then no life emerges, yet if you start with the universe 100% full of life, then all life immediately dies from overpopulation. Again, if the universe contains life, but it is too sparsely populated, then the cells immediately die in the next generation.  When you then gradually increase the population of the universe, it starts to become evident that at certain capacities life might exist for a few generations, it is not necessarily sustainable.

Thus, in order to achieve sustainable life forms, one has to find just the right combination of rules and starting conditions. Eventually, you get the sense that life in this little microcosm is quite fragile with respects the laws of its universe.

Ants, Brains and Cities

An analogous situation is found in many seemingly complex areas in nature. In his book entitled “Emergence: The connected lives of Ants, Brains and Cities“,  Steven Johnson shows how individual agents (like the cells in the Game of Life) who follow simple rules can collectively produce highly complex behaviour.

For example, neurons (brain cells) follow extremely simple rules: when a signal arrives from a connected cell, the cell performs a simple mathematical calculation to determine whether it should forward the signal to another connected cell, and if so to which cell. That is it. And from those very simple rules extremely complex behaviours arise, such as conscious thought, hypothetical thinking, and other marvels of human cognition.

The same emergence happens with ants. Each ant follows some very simple rules: when it meets another ant, they exchange some pheromones to let each other know what type of work they are doing. Then if an ant encounters too many other ants performing the same task as him, then he changes to something else. From these simple rules,  complex behaviour on the colony level emerges. It becomes self-sustaining, the colony collectively calculates the best location to store dead bodies and other waste away from primary food sources, duties are always balanced so as to always have just the right amount of food without waste piling up, and so on.

Whilst these emergent behaviours are incredible when compared with the simplicity of the rules followed by individual agents (be they blocks in the Game of Life, ants in a colony, or neurons in the brain), it should be noted that such behaviour would not exist if the rules were even slightly different, as we have seen was the case with the Game of Life. Thus, if the rules governing neuronal firing was different, or if the way ants decide to change roles was not exactly the same, then we would not have consciousness, and ants would not form successful colonies.

Lessons for our Macrocosm

When you think about the fragility of emergent systems in terms of our much more complex universe, some things become immediately apparent. Imagine the rules governing chemical reactions were slightly different, or if there was significantly less energy during the Big Bang, or if the speed of light was a bit slower or a bit faster. Just like in the Game of Life, such alterations to the rules or starting conditions would cause the emergent systems we see in our universe to not be possible.

This then leads to an interesting question: Why are the rules and starting conditions of our universe set in a way that allows for stars, life and human consciousness to all form? Now that is an interesting question…

The Embarassment of Science

The cataract-ridden public eye

For the average layman science is science; it is the authoritative voice of our collective knowledge as a species, defining the nature of reality, dispelling myth and misconception, and producing a singular, unified, unanimous understanding of the universe. The reality of the situation, it turns out, is something quite different.

We think of science as a systematic approach to observation, hypothesizing, experimentation, and publishing of results. Whilst this naive view might have applied last century, we now find ourselves in a complex ecosystem of ideological power struggles, bureaucracy, and economic incentives to find certain types of results.

Scientific Censorship

Imagine you are a scientist, and you have just made an incredible discovery which suggests that we need to rethink some of our fundamental beliefs. So you collect as much data as you can and carefully prepare a paper to submit to a scientific journal for peer review. You are quite excited about your statistically significant results, and the implications, and so you eagerly await the reaction from your fellow scientists.

The paper then lands on the desk of the editor of the scientific journal. He starts reading, and a frown appears over his face. He skips the the end to read the conclusions. This paper could cause a lot of problems for him, perhaps because of his boss, perhaps because of the readership, or perhaps because of influential people who have a vested interest in the journal. Either way, he cannot possibly publish this article, and so he rejects it before it even can make its way to be peer reviewed.

You receive the rejection. You are stunned, then saddened, and then angered. After a few days you calm down and decide that it is not important, there are other journals whom you can approach to get your research published. Unfortunately, as you soon discover, journal after journal reject your paper. This is not a conspiracy, your findings simply support a sufficiently unpopular opinion that the journals feel uncomfortable to publish.


If we consider for a moment the “ecosystem of academic knowledge”, we see that there are significant consequences to this practice. Knowledge can be seen as being created and refined within the universities. From this knowledge, a small portion of this then finds its way into scientific journals in order to disseminate this new information to the rest of the scientific community focusing on that field. A few years later this information might then be part of a meta-analysis hoping to give more credence to the results of individual research through aggregation. Some time may pass, and then the results of the meta-analysis might make its way into a textbook, and start to be consumed by a wider audience. More time passes, and this information starts to influence professional practice (perhaps it is medicine, or psychology, or engineering, or law, etc.). Eventually, if it survives the journey, this knowledge may become part of our collective understanding of the world.

Irritations of the Scientific Method

Sometimes, if research is not contrary to ideological doctrine, but sufficiently shocking, the media might pick up on it. This then immediately is fed into public consciousness in whatever version and form the media agency decides. And this can be extremely dangerous, as in the case of the Lancet retracting a paper suggesting that vaccines cause autism only after this was publicised to the general public as fact.

“How could this be allowed to happen?” you might well ask. Well, an important part of the scientific method is the reproduction of results to confirm the validity of the research. If results cannot be reproduced, then any conclusions based upon this can only be anecdotal at best. Unfortunately, the scientific community is incentivised by the institutions for which they work to produce novel research which is statistically significant. There is almost no incentive for scientists to reproduce results. This leads to a breakdown of the scientific method, and ultimately to the Replication Crisis which exists today.

Because science builds upon itself and makes assumptions that scientific work which was done in the past can be considered axiomatic, there is this veritable house of cards that is constructed. If one card falls, then all research built atop it falls too. Some research suggests that as little as 10% of research is reproducible.


When time is taken to carefully assess results of research, it is discovered that a disturbing quantity of statistical results are misleading and not representative of the truth, and because of the lack of incentive to reproduce results, this issue is not detected until much later (or not at all). This could be simply due to honest mistakes on the part of the researchers, or as a deliberate attempt to “massage” the data in such a way as to produce statistically significant results; a practice referred to as p-Hacking or data dredging.

While such manipulation of data is highly unethical, it is understandable when one considers that the scientific ecosystem is constructed in such a way as to promote this very behaviour.

Hyper Abstraction

It should be understood that there are varying degrees by which science can depart from reality. At one level, you have the field of Chemistry. Here, scientists analyse properties of elements, atoms and molecules to isolate the fundamental laws governing chemical interactions. This is very close to reality, but not quite reality, as we are discovering in the field of Quantum Mechanics.

There are, however, other areas of research which are quite different, and are based on no such observable phenomena. Take, for example, the attempt by scientists to explain why the universe had such specific starting conditions such as to allow for intelligent life to develop. There is no explanation for why the universal constants are the way they are; even a slight change would result in a fundamental change to chemical properties, with the consequence that stars would not even be able to form. To accept that there is no implicit necessity for this within the laws of nature might suggest the intelligent design of the universe; a thought which is utterly repulsive to most scientists. Thus, there is a desperate attempt to find alternate explanations. These include the concept of parallel universes or the multiverse, where our universe is just one of an infinite number of slightly different universes, and in ours, we just happen to have conditions which led to intelligent life evolving.

It is possible to neither prove nor disprove such theories. I would thus suggest that such theories serve no other purpose than self-indulgent denial of the observable evidence.

Concluding Thoughts

All of this is not to say that science is a waste of time, or that it should be rejected. Rather, I think it is very important to have a realistic view of how science operates in order to have the right attitude towards results of research. When assuming that scientific results are absolute truth, it can lead to dangerous situations. Rather, if scientific research is assessed with a healthy dose of scepticism, it is easier to get a more accurate interpretation of the results and of our state of understanding.

Science plays a crucial role in our society, in providing advances in medical treatments, improving our quality of life, and in understanding the world around us. However, we must all take responsibility for what we choose to believe.

Thoughts on Evolution

Monkey see Monkey do

If you ask the vast majority of those who believe in Evolution why the do so, the most common answer you will hear is “because it is scientifically proven”. Yes, there is a strong conviction within the collective consciousness that Evolution = Science = Fact. There is no need to dig deeper or look further for the truth. What I find particularly interesting is that there is a large number of people who are so violently convinced that Evolution is fact without even a basic understanding of what it is, how it works, or what the implications are.

This is not necessarily a criticism of those in the evolutionist camp. The same is painfully obvious with the creationists. I very much doubt that most individuals who profess to belong to a religion have ever read (let alone study) their religious text(s), or could even explain their beliefs based on said texts. This is a depressing consequence of our “critical thinking” (or lack thereof), our fierce aversion to thinking about the “bigger questions”, and ideological propaganda which we eat up like candy.

Survival of the Fittest

So then, what is Evolution? To answer this question, let’s first look at something called “Natural Selection”. The idea of advantageous genetic mutations being favoured in successive generations leading to subtle adaptations over time is a proven scientific fact. For example, if a species of bird move into a new geographic region where the seed husks are harder to open, and so those individuals with stronger beaks are more likely to eat more seeds, and therefore more likely to live long enough to have children and pass the genes for stronger beaks on to their offspring. Thus, after a number of generations, the average beak will be much stronger than their ancestors who originally moved into that new area.

Let us use a simple illustration to more clearly understand Natural Selection. With your TV, there are a number of different settings (brightness, contrast, colour mode, aspect ratio, and so on), which you experiment with to find the optimal settings for you. Perhaps you prefer watching TV late at night with the lights off, and so you might settle on a dimmer setting with slightly less contrast. However, through your experimentation with the settings, you cannot somehow create a new setting, only change the values of the existing settings.

The Theory of Evolution, however, elaborates on Natural Selection to try and suggest that, not only does it explain the changing “values of the settings”, but also that “new settings” are added, or more precisely, that new genetic code is added, not only mutated/changed. Thus, different species of fish could differ in size, shape and colour, but also (by virtue of evolution) develop a hip bone and eventually become a dog. 

In my opinion, this is the reason why many are confused by the word “Theory of evolution”, and the idea that it is a scientific fact. To clarify, Natural Selection is a scientific fact, but Evolution is a theory which is based on that scientific fact. Unfortunately, this theory which explains speciation has become so elaborate to the extent that it is used to explain away the need for God, and to ridicule creationists. This seems nonsensical to me, as science can only hope to explain how things happen, not why things happen.

What Darwin had to say about it

In his seminal work, “The Origin of Species”, Darwin explained that in order for Evolution to occur, there are three prerequisites:

  1. Organisms which can reproduce
  2. Genetic mutation at the time of reproduction
  3. Competition over a scarce resource

We can all agree that these three conditions are met at the moment. But when we consider that this might not have always been the case, we are faced with the first major flaw with the theory: Where did the first cellular organism capable of reproduction come from? Before a cellular organism “developed” the ability to reproduce, two of the three requirements for evolution to exist were not met. The consequence of this is that the best we could say at this point is that evolution could be possible after the first reproducing organism(s) existed.

Darwin also acknowledged that his theory could not explain the Cambrian explosion; an event which occurred about 540 million years ago, where all current families of animals suddenly appeared in the fossil record with no transitional forms between the different animal types. Here we have major flaw number 2.

SETI should look Down not Up

SETI, or the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Life, is an initiative to scan through signals received from outer space for clues of intelligent life. Now, how does one find such proof of intelligent life from electromagnetic waves picked up from space? Basically, patterns which convey information. The white noise of space is quite random, but an alien radio signal would have intricate and complex patterns containing (possibly) decipherable information.

Although the SETI project has thus far failed to find any such sign, many might be surprised to learn that such an alien sign does in fact exist, and we have been studying it for many years. I’ll give you a clue: What is a source of huge amounts of complex information which is not man-made? …. The answer: DNA.

DNA is the most sophisticated data storage mechanism we know of, storing 215 petabytes of data per gram. The microscopic machinery to manipulate the data contained in the DNA is so precisely synchronised that if any part were not to work correctly, mitosis would not be possible, and again two out of three requirements for evolution would be impossible.

Thus, Evolutionary theory does not seem to be self-consistent in this instant and offers no hint of how it could possibly have begun. However, we see direct evidence of intelligent life in the design of DNA.

The Big Bang

Following on from this idea of beginnings, let’s talk of a moment of the first beginning; the Big Bang. Current scientific estimates put this event at about 13.7 billion years ago, where spacetime first began (General Relativity supports this as showing a spacetime singularity at time 0). The Big Bang is thought to have been caused by a large amount of energy originating from outside of the spacetime continuum. What is very interesting about this is, not only does science (and by extension, Evolution) not even hint at where this energy could come from, it ironically fits extremely well with the idea of Intelligent Design.

Bacterial flagellum “motor”

Irreducible Complexity

A much-debated topic between Evolutionists and those supporting Intelligent Design is that of “Irreducible Complexity“, which is an argument that states:

“certain biological systems cannot evolve by successive small modifications to pre-existing functional systems through natural selection.”

A famous example often cited is the bacterial flagellum, which functions like a motor, propelling the bacterium around its environment. The argument is that if just one of the many proteins which make up this motor is missing or out of place, the motor fails to function and becomes a great hindrance rather than an advantage. Therefore it could not have evolved step-by-step, as it is only evolutionary advantageous in its final form.

If you do some digging, you will discover that there has been an ongoing battle between scientists regarding this, with many theories of how supposedly irreducibly complex structures could actually be reducible. However, upon closer examination, it becomes clear that these counter-arguments are purely theoretical and hypothetical, with little to no proof that these structures are, in reality, not irreducibly complex.

To make the situation worse, Evolutionists often make the ignorant claim that Intelligent Design is not supported by science and that there is no peer-reviewed research in favour of Intelligent Design. This is demonstrably false, and just a result of the issue I mentioned at the beginning of this article, where us humans do not like to look deeper into uncomfortable issues such as where we came from, and so on. Evolutionism is thus, in my mind, just another type of organised religion, with its own dogma and zealotism.

If you would like to see a detailed list of peer-reviewed papers, you can download it here.

Larger Questions

For me, the biggest problem with Evolution is that it shrinks the larger question of the origin of the universe for the layman into a theory about speciation. This is problematic, as science has yet to come up with a theory to explain questions such as why the laws of physic are the way they are? Why are the universal constants precisely tuned to enable chemical reactions which support life? and so on…

In conclusion, Evolution is a theory (practically a religion) which has many flaws, and many people who have never studied it in any detail hide behind the “scientific nature” of the theory to avoid having to deal with thoughts and questions of an existential or metaphysical nature. In addition, because this theory is supported by academic, social and political authorities, the abundance of evidence in support of Intelligent Design are ignored, ridiculed and largely ignored. In this era of “Critical Thinking”, we are in denial of the fact that we are just as subjective and ignorant as ever before.

Feeding the Trolls

Two phenomena have arisen relatively recently in human history which have, in my opinion, greatly contributed to the development of what is now referred to as “internet trolls“; The attempt at cultivating critical thinking within the education system, and hyperconnectivity.

The Ultimate Megaphone

Un unforeseen consequence of Moore’s Law has been that technological advances have brought about fundamental behavioural changes faster than society is able to adapt. Suddenly everyone is hyperconnected constantly, yet we have not yet had time to integrate this into our social protocols, or emerge compensatory strategies to ensure the continuity of our social structures and balance with other important aspects of our intrapersonal and interpersonal lives.

Some may argue that such disruptive technology, and the power to shatter existing social structures, has done a lot of good; and in a limited scope I feel such an outlook is very valid. However, consider the worrying prevalence of porn addiction, internet addiction, and cyber bullying, and we see that, as a species, we have not adapted to this new ‘way of being’ in a healthy manner.

Consider the difference between a verbal conversation between individuals in private and a recorded message on the public internet which will virtually never die, and which can exist completely independently of our identity if we choose to be anonymous. Possibly this juxtapositioning begins to illuminate potential consequences, and thus responsibilities which may or may not be taken into account. When we speak with another person face-to-face, we have been socialised to treat them a certain way, depending on who they are, and to expect consequences of our actions. We could have strongly negative consequences if we insult or enrage the other person. Such personal consequences disappear when you are sitting on the other end of the world behind a computer screen.

There is a branch of psychological theory referred to as “Constructivism“, in which it is argued that we continuously “recreate” our identity every time we interact. We are thus a slightly different version of ourselves when we are called into the principal’s office compared to the version when playing cards with a cousin. So what version of ourselves do we become when sitting alone in front of a computer screen? I think it is an interesting question.

Jaques Lacan similarly proposed that through social interactions, we are “interpolated” into societal roles according to ideological frameworks in which we exist. If we think about this in terms of online interactions, what role are do we assume when interacting online. Perhaps the lack of consequences and pervasive hostility results in us unconsciously constructing a version of ourselves which express behaviours which simultaneously allow for unfiltered expression at the same time defending against the attacks of others.

Bigots Anonymous

Since the 1990’s, there has been great emphasis on developing “Critical Thinking” skills in many educational institutions around the world.

“The aim of Critical Thinking is to promote independent thinking, personal autonomy and reasoned judgment in thought and action.”

This is a great initiative and the world certainly needs more people with well developed reasoning and judgement. However, coupled with the constantly decreasing standards of education, the result has been to imbue the younger generations with the idea that they expect to always have an opinion about everything, without the rigorous requirements of academia of former years. This generation does not feel any obligation to base opinions on facts, research, or even logical arguments. This mental laziness is widespread and very common. Of course one cannot generalise and there are always a minority of brilliant minds which rise above the obstacles of the education institutions.

I believe that another reason for the emergence of this type of behaviour is the focus of institutional education has, like almost all other aspects of society, become driven by commercial and political interests.

In the past, education took the form of apprenticeships, where the apprentice would learn from the master over many years to hone a particular skill until they too had master over it. Then during the Renaissance period education became more holistic, introducing academic pursuits, to open the mind, and to explore thoughts and ideas on a broad range of subjects.

Today, such noble idealism is a thing of the past, and the curriculum has become self-serving in the sense that students are taught how to pass exams. This is in the context of an extraordinarily artificial system of Key Performance Indicators, metrics, ogive curves, standardisations, and restrictive regulations.

source: xkcd

Power to the Idiots

It is thus my opinion that the combination of limitless self-entitlement to unfounded opinions and the anonymous, depersonalised, consequence-less internet, leads to a type of “self construction” in which bigotry and cyberbullying thrive.

It is perhaps an extremely unpopular opinion to have, but it amazes me the extent to which individuals feel the absolute right to have an opinion about things that they have no knowledge of. The authority of experts is no longer valued as before, and what seems to now give credibility is the number of “followers” you have, rather than how knowledgeable you are.

I hope that a fundamental shift in education on a global scale is around the corner, as I do not see the current system being very sustainable.

The Anti-cancer Gene

Our built-in super hero

In all humans, there is a special gene which creates a protein called “Tumor protein p53“. This little protein is sometimes referred to as the “guardian gene” because it protects DNA from the mutations which cause cancer. It does this by activating DNA repair proteins and pausing the cell growth cycle for long enough that problems in the DNA can be discovered and corrected. If the DNA is damaged beyond repair, then this protein will ‘push the self-destruct button’ of the cell; a process called apoptosis, thus preventing the damaged DNA from being passed on to the cell’s offspring.

In order for Cancer to develop, there needs to be a bunch of specific changes to the DNA which accumulate over multiple cell divisions as mutations. These changes activate what are referred to as “oncogenes“, which are genes that cause the cancerous behaviour of cells. Now, when the guardian protein is doing its job, these dangerous changes to the DNA are not allowed to continue. Conversely, when cancer does develop, often this gene is one of the first things to be switched off.

So how do we switch it back on?

The “On” Switch

The beauty of natural medicine is that it supports health. Thus, rather than trying to kill cancer cells with harsh radiation, or poisonous chemotherapy, a naturopathic approach assists the body in strengthening the natural defences against cancer. In the case of damage to the DNA resulting in the deactivation of our guardian gene, there are some natural ways to reactivate it, effectively “flipping the on switch”.

Some examples of botanicals which have this ability are:

  • Capsaicin, the active component in chilli peppers [1].
  • Green Tea Polyphenols (EGCG) [2].
  • Curcumin, the active compound in Turmeric [3].

Another problem that should be addressed is the suppression of the guardian gene in the first place. Often, this gene is switched off by the MDM2 protein. Luckily for us, there are also some natural ways to prevent this.

Some examples of botanicals which prevent the MDM2-p53 interaction are:

Closing Remarks

Whilst naturopathic medicine is very useful in both preventing and treating cancer, some important points should be kept in mind. Firstly, you should not rely on Naturopathic medicine to cure cancer alone. It can be very useful in conjunction with conventional treatments or used by itself when conventional medicine has run out of options. Secondly, do not try and self-medicate with natural products. There are naturopaths out there that specialise in oncology. Seek out expert guidance. 

There is a common misconception that natural medicine is safe. This is not at all true. For example, with EGCG in Green Tea, you would need to drink five cups of green tea to get a therapeutic dose of EGCG. However, this would be quite bad for your health due to the high caffeine content and the potential depletion of Vitamin E in the liver and kidneys. A trained naturopath can assist you in using these natural products correctly, and in a safe way.


  1. Reactivation of mutant p53 by capsaicin
  2. Pro-apoptotic and migration-suppressing potential of EGCG, and the involvement of AMPK in the p53-mediated modulation of VEGF and MMP-9 expression
  3. The effects of turmeric (curcumin) on tumour suppressor protein (p53) and estrogen receptor (ERα) in breast cancer cells
  4. Natural products targeting the p53-MDM2 pathway and mutant p53: Recent advances and implications in cancer medicine

Conquering the Common Cold

The common cold – such an innocent-sounding ailment – is to blame for around 40% of all time off from work, and about 30% of school absenteeism. And it certainly is quite common; adults can expect to get between 4 to 6 colds per year, and children about 6 to 8. Despite the pervasiveness of this disease, there is little consensus on how to define, diagnose and treat it. [1] In this post I’d like to talk about what exactly is the Common Cold, discuss some common misconceptions and then look at what we can do about it from a Naturopathic perspective.

What is a Cold?

I notice that there is a lot of uncertainty about what is the difference between a cold and the flu. Quite simply, the flu is an infection by an influenza virus (from where the common name “flu” comes from). The “common cold”, on the other hand, is also a viral infection, but it could be one of hundreds of different viruses which cause the infection (rhinoviruses being the most common). It is generally understood that a cold occurs when the body is run down and the immune system is weakened to the extent that viruses which normally are no threat are able to overcome the body’s normal defence systems and cause an infection.

Common Misconceptions

1 – Inflammation is the enemy

When we are sick with a cold and flu, the symptoms are as a result of the inflammatory processes in the body. Something I consistently see in the medical community is a reflex of suppressing these inflammatory processes. A patient arrives at their family doctor with a cough, and the doctor prescribes cough syrup. A patient has a sore throat, and the doctor prescribes a throat spray. What these “treatments” accomplish is to suppress healthy systems in the body. For example, throat sprays often constrict blood vessels in the throat so that the immune cells cannot get into the infected tissue which then traps the killed microbes in mucus to be taken out of the body through coughing. So you use these “cold and flu treatments” and feel better because the inflammatory processes are suppressed. However, it is those same inflammatory processes which are trying to get rid of the bad microbes trying to overtake your body. Suppressing inflammation just serves to temporarily make you feel better whilst at the same time prolonging the illness in many cases. It does not address the underlying causes: weak immune system and microbial infection. We need to understand that these symptoms are our friends, not our enemies! [4]

2 – Vitamin C to the rescue!

When people (including many Medical Doctors) think of treating the common cold, the first thing that comes to mind is Vitamin C, and lots of it. This is, in part, due to the Nobel Laureate, Linus Pauling, publishing a book in 1970 where he argued that megadoses of vitamin C should be used for treating colds. Despite a lot of research to the contrary, this idea is still in the public consciousness. Although regularly taking Vitamin C has been shown to reduce the severity of colds, it’s therapeutic use at the time of illness has been scientifically shown to be of no value [5].

3 – Good Ol’ Antibiotics

Unfortunately, a disturbing number of people (including many Medical Doctors) turn to antibiotics at the first hint of infection. However, it is a well-established fact [2] that antibiotics are of no use for treating the common cold. Unfortunately, this common practice is highly dangerous, with risks for both the individual patient (such as Dysbiosis) as well as for society at large [3].

What can be done?

Thankfully there are a number of things that can be done if we use a bit of logical reasoning and solid scientific research.

1 – Rest and Hydration

The first goal should be to help out your immune system to do its job. For this, you should rest as much as possible once the symptoms of a cold have started. Most colds will go away on their own within a few days (some symptoms may last around 3 weeks), so have patience with yourself and remember that the more you rest, the better your body can fight the infection.

You should also try and keep your throat hydrated. Note that it is not about consuming liquid, but rather about keeping your throat moist. You are essentially trying to flush away microbes from the infected areas. So for this, you can regularly sip water or herbal teas. There are some useful things to add to your drinks, such as lemon and honey. Lemon is an amazing natural disinfectant, and honey is a very versatile natural anti-microbial.

2 – Zinc

It has been discovered that Zinc lozenges have been very useful in fighting throat infections involved in the common cold [6]. It is important to use the lozenges, and not syrup or tablets, as interaction with saliva is essential for activating the zinc to exert a direct antiviral activity. The recommended lozenges to use are those containing zinc acetate or gluconate and try and avoid those containing citric acid, sorbitol or mannitol. You can take one lozenge up to every 2 hours whilst the symptoms persist.

3 – Botanical Medicine

Two herbal remedies which have proven to be of great benefit are Echinacea and South African Geranium. Echinacea is better early on in the infection, and I personally prefer to take it as a tincture with 20 drops in a small amount of water every two hours. It exerts direct local effects and is useful in all upper respiratory infections.With South African Geranium (also referred to as pelargonium), you can also take this as a tincture and has been shown to significantly reduce both the symptoms, as well as the duration of common colds [7].


[1] PubMed: Common Cold
[2] Center for Disease Control. “Antibiotic use for the Common Cold
[3] Llor & Bjerrum (2014). “Antimicrobial resistance
[4] Ptizzoccaro (2016). “The Symptom as Ally, not Enemy
[5] Hemila & Chalker (2013). “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the Common Cold
[6] Singh M, Das RR. “Zinc for the common cold“.
[7] Lizogub, Riley & Heger (2007). “Efficacy of a pelargonium sidoides preparation in patients with the common cold: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Thoughts on Homeopathy

According to an article in the Huffington Post, the two most controversial topics on Wikipedia are “Jesus Christ” and “Homeopathy”. The first subject seems quite obvious, as religion is a well-established topic of debate. However, why would Homeopathy be surrounded by such controversy? In researching and learning about the subject of Homeopathy, it has become clear to me why there is so much debate, and why such extremes of opinions exist. In this post, I’d like to discuss both sides of this debate and share my own thoughts on the topic.

What is Homeopathy?

To start with, it is useful to first understand what Homeopathy really is. Most people I speak to make no differentiation between Homeopathy, Naturopathy or Herbal Medicine. To introduce the concept, here is how the British Homeopathic Association defines Homeopathy:

Homeopathy is a natural form of medicine used by over 200 million people worldwide to treat both acute and chronic conditions. It is based on the principle of ‘like cures like’. In other words, a substance taken in small amounts will cure the same symptoms it causes if taken in large amounts.

Notice two key characteristics here: firstly, the principle of ‘like cures like‘, and secondly, that substances are taken in small amounts. Let us first consider this idea of “like cures like”.

Like Cures Like

In conventional medicine, if your blood pressure is too high, then some chemical substance which lowers blood pressure will be given. If you are having an allergic reaction, then a substance which prevents the allergic reaction from happening is given. Here, it is clear that balance is sought through administering substances which provoke a physiological response opposite to the physiological pathology. In Homeopathy, however, substances which could cause the symptoms being treated are used as the treatment itself.

Atropa belladonna

Take, for example, a person who has a terribly high fever, which is causing hallucinations accompanied by congestion and throbbing pain. To treat this, a homoeopath might select Atropa belladonna, also known as Belladonna or Deadly Nightshade. For those unfamiliar with this plant, it is considered to be one of the most toxic plants in the eastern hemisphere. Belladonna poisoning produces hallucinations, flushing, dry mouth, headache and tachycardia. [1] Essentially, the effects of the plant mimic the symptoms experienced by the patient, and for this reason, the plant is chosen as a remedy.

Because this concept is so counterintuitive to those with a Western mindset it has become one of the main focuses of criticism by sceptics. To them, and indeed to most who come across this concept for the first time, this idea seems completely ludicrous. Their argument is that ‘like’ cannot cure ‘like’ just as you cannot put out a fire by using more fire, or warm up a cold drink by adding ice. With such an argument, it seems only logical that giving such a treatment would only exacerbate the symptoms further, and potentially kill the patient.

This idea becomes slightly less ridiculous when one thinks about how modern medicine treats cancer. Many of the treatments (chemo and radiation therapy) actually cause cancer themselves, and yet are used kill cancerous cells. Think also of how vaccinations work. The vaccine is created from the virus itself. In an analogous manner, it is argued by some Homeopaths that the medicine which provokes similar symptoms stimulates the responses of the organism, enabling it to respond to the disease. [2]

Most Homeopaths with a more classical training and background would actually argue that the framework of conventional western medicine does not allow for fully understanding the concept of ‘like cures like’. Their view is that homoeopathy treats the individual and not the disease (as conventional medicine does), and this operates on the energies of the person. [3] Now, whilst I like to keep an open mind, I also like to base my opinions on evidence. After all, without evidence, almost anything could be argued and believed. Having said that, while it is a scientific fact that there are various energy fields surrounding the body [4], there is (not to my knowledge) any research showing that homeopathic remedies affect these biofields. Thus, in my mind, this cannot be used as a rational argument.

Small Doses

The concept of ‘like cures like’ can be further understood once we understand the way in which the homeopathic medicine is prepared. This is done through an iterative process of dilution and succussion. Put simply, the plant used for the remedy (for example, Belladonna) is made into a tincture. One drop is then taken and diluted into a bottle of water and shaken vigorously. Then one drop of that diluted substance is taken and diluted into a new bottle of water and shaken vigorously. This process is repeated numerous times. Homeopaths argue that each dilution, whilst making the solution weaker, increases the potency of the effect. [3]

Once again, this idea of more diluted = more potent is quite counterintuitive and seems completely illogical to most people in the western world. Surely the less there is of a substance, the less effect it has on the human body?

To understand this from a conventional medicine perspective, consider that it is known that certain compounds have very different effects at different doses. Take Thyroid hormones as an example. In the book “Thyroid Hormones: Biosynthesis, Physiological Effects, and Mechanisms of Action” by Y. K. Turakulov (1972), an interesting biochemical phenomenon is described:

“Large doses of the hormone act on cell structures on which it does not act in much smaller concentrations… The effect of large doses can be reduced to direct action on structures which, under normal, physiological conditions, do not react to thyroid hormones.” (pg 268)

Here we see the precedent for a novel action of a compound when given in a different dose. If one were to take large doses of various hormones, they would not interact with the same structures as does the microscopic quantities found in the blood. This could be compared to the action of the microscopic quantities of the original tinctures left remaining in the final homeopathic remedy.

Avogadro’s Constant

This theory is discredited by critics, however, as the chemical principle of Avogadro’s Constant is then used to argue that there cannot possibly be even a single molecule left of the original substance. Avogadro’s Constant defines the limit to which a substance can be diluted where the original substance is lost altogether. This limit is 6.023 x 10^23, corresponding to the homeopathic potencies of 12C or 24X (1 part in 1024).

This might seem like a fatal blow for Homeopathy. After all, this is a well-established law of nature. How could anyone possibly argue with that? Well, it turns out that you cannot simply apply this neat and tidy mathematical rule to the physical practice of creating homeopathic medicine. Recent research in the field of material science has shed some new light on what is going on.


In their 2010 research paper entitled “Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective“, Chikramane et al. go on to explain that each time the dilution undergoes succussion (referred to as potentiation), cavitation causes vapour bubbles to occur, trapping particles. The authors go on to state:

“The confirmed presence of these crystalline species of starting materials or those derived from them despite the ultra-high dilutions, such as 30c and 200c was astounding, proving that the starting materials were retained even with extremely high dilutions.”

Similar findings were presented in a 2012 paper by R. Bell and M. Koithan [5] who note measurable “silica nano-particles heterogeneously dispersed in a colloidal suspension”. They point out that the quantities of these nanoparticles resemble the quantities of hormones found in our blood, which we previously stated were necessary to be at those high dilutions in order to act on specific biological structures.

A 2011 paper entitled “Homeopathy emerging as nanomedicine” by Upadhaya and Nayak concluded that:

“During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The ‘size’ of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information – which biological systems are able to identify – to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.”

From research such as this, it seems that there is a plausible, scientific basis for a mechanism of action of Homeopathic remedies. However, I am still quite sceptical of the deeply esoteric explanations offered by Classical Homeopathy.

Confusing Clinical Trials

When one tries to search for studies or clinical research done on the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies, many conflicting research can be found. Some research indicates that homeopathic remedies have the same effect as a placebo, whilst others show statistically significant results. How can this be?

To answer this question, one must first understand how Homeopaths find the “cure” (referred to as the simillimum). The Homeopath takes time to compile a detailed profile of the patient, symptoms, psychological attributes, and cases in which symptoms are better or worse. This is then matched to a remedy profile in a Materia Medica. This process is obviously quite personalised to the patient, and not at all resembles the relatively reductionist method of conventional medicine to match a disease to a drug. Because of this level of personalisation applied to treatment, the standard model of double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical research does not work, which results in non-“gold standard” research being conducted. This research is then classified by others in the medical world as low quality and discarded when performing meta analyses, and other such reviews of the literature.

My Conclusions

Although I used to quickly manifest a derogatory scoff at the thought of Homeopathy, I have come to develop an appreciation for this novel medical paradigm. Whilst I still cannot completely comprehend how it could possibly work, I have seen many examples of homeopathic remedies work for close friends and family (my wife included). There is a growing body of research providing compelling evidence for a possible mechanism of action. However, this is sharply contrasted by the rather bizarre and often irregular methods of arriving at a cure for a particular patient. In the end, I can’t help but imagine that there is something very real happening when one sucks on a homeopathic dilution sprayed onto some sugar balls that allows my wife to sleep at night. After all, many millions of people around the world make use of Homeopathy; many using it as primary care. If it was simply placebo sugar pills, could such a system of medicine have possibly become so successful?


[1] Wikipedia: Belladonna
[2] Sense about Homeopathy
[3] Classical Homeopathy
[4] Biofield Science and Healing: History, Terminology, and Concepts
[5] Bell, R., Koithan, M. (2012). “A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system“.

Great Natural Medicine Resources Online

Here are some of my favourite online resources for natural medicine.

Natural Medicine Journal

The Natural Medicine Journal is a free, online, medical journal which publishes peer-reviewed articles and reviews of scientific research into natural medicine. This is by far my favourite online source of information for natural medicine!

Naturopathic Doctor News & Review

Another excellent resource with frequently published articles on a wide range of topics. This is a rich resource for both practitioners and patients. NDNR includes current protocols, practice management, business development, marketing, clinical research, news and more.

Online Homeopathic Materia Medica

When looking up details of homoeopathic remedies, I find the online materia medica by the International Academy of Classical Homeopathy particularly useful as it allows you to compare entries across multiple resources.

Naturopathy Books I love

There are a seemingly endless plethora of books on medicinal plants, herbalism, healing foods, traditional remedies, and so forth. However, most of these books lack strong scientific evidence supporting their recommendations. Thankfully there are a few gems among these with a wealth of knowledge and based on current scientific research. Here are some of my favourites.

The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine Third Edition by Michael T. Murray and‎ Joseph Pizzorno

This book is a great resource for both practitioners as well as the general public. The authors do an amazing job of discussing each pathology, the conventional treatments and the possible treatment options. What I really appreciate is that they also deal with herbal treatments which are common but ineffective and explain as much. I think this is extremely useful, as often people will say “I saw on the internet that I should be taking x”, or “This person told me about x”. At the end of each chapter (the pathologies are ordered alphabetically and each has a dedicated chapter) is a treatment summary with a recommended treatment plan. I really love this book, and it is quite comprehensive.

Medical Herbalism: The Science Principles and Practices Of Herbal Medicine by David Hoffmann

This book beautifully blends western traditional herbalism with a modern scientific understanding of biochemistry. The introductory chapter is almost poetic and followed by very succinct and easy to understand chapters on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity and safety. After establishing this needed background knowledge, the author then goes on to examine the preparation of herbal formulations for various disorders grouped by body system. This is another great resource to deepen one’s understanding and appreciation of Vis Medicatrix Naturae.

Naturopathic Oncology Third edition by Neil McKinney

In this detailed, encyclopedic text on natural treatments for cancer, Niel McKinney ND reviews a wide variety of natural treatments of varying efficacy, from the down-right dangerous to those that are so versatile they can simultaneously attack the cancer cells, enhance the effectiveness of the chemotherapy drug and reduce its toxicity. The book begins with a very detailed overview of the pathogenesis of cancer, the biochemical and genetic abnormalities, and then goes on to provide a broad overview of conventional therapies such as chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and immunotherapy. In the second half of the book, there are recommended protocols for many specific forms of cancer, as well as protocols for concurrent use with specific chemotherapies. This book brings a lot of clarity to the important and very misunderstood subject of natural treatments for cancer.